(原) GORM学习摘要

注意:原创文章,请后转载,转载需注明出处。

官方中文文档

安装

go get -u gorm.io/gorm
go get -u gorm.io/driver/sqlite

快速Hello

package main

import (
  "gorm.io/gorm"
  "gorm.io/driver/sqlite"
)

type Product struct {
  gorm.Model
  Code  string
  Price uint
}

func main() {
  db, err := gorm.Open(sqlite.Open("test.db"), &gorm.Config{})
  if err != nil {
    panic("failed to connect database")
  }

  // 迁移 schema
  db.AutoMigrate(&Product{})

  // Create
  db.Create(&Product{Code: "D42", Price: 100})

  // Read
  var product Product
  db.First(&product, 1) // 根据整形主键查找
  db.First(&product, "code = ?", "D42") // 查找 code 字段值为 D42 的记录

  // Update - 将 product 的 price 更新为 200
  db.Model(&product).Update("Price", 200)
  // Update - 更新多个字段
  db.Model(&product).Updates(Product{Price: 200, Code: "F42"}) // 仅更新非零值字段
  db.Model(&product).Updates(map[string]interface{}{"Price": 200, "Code": "F42"})

  // Delete - 删除 product
  db.Delete(&product, 1)
}

看示例的增删改查很简单。

模型定义

即定义数据结构,在程序中使用struct即可自动生成。

type User struct {
  ID           uint
  Name         string
  Email        *string
  Age          uint8
  Birthday     *time.Time
  MemberNumber sql.NullString
  ActivatedAt  sql.NullTime
  CreatedAt    time.Time
  UpdatedAt    time.Time
}

约定

使用 ID 作为主键

使用 CreatedAt、UpdatedAt 字段追踪创建、更新时间

gorm.Model

GORM 定义一个 gorm.Model 结构体,其包括字段 ID、CreatedAt、UpdatedAt、DeletedAt

// gorm.Model 的定义
type Model struct {
  ID        uint           `gorm:"primaryKey"`
  CreatedAt time.Time
  UpdatedAt time.Time
  DeletedAt gorm.DeletedAt `gorm:"index"`
}

高级选项

字段级权限控制
type User struct {
  Name string `gorm:"<-:create"` // 允许读和创建
  Name string `gorm:"<-:update"` // 允许读和更新
  Name string `gorm:"<-"`        // 允许读和写(创建和更新)
  Name string `gorm:"<-:false"`  // 允许读,禁止写
  Name string `gorm:"->"`        // 只读(除非有自定义配置,否则禁止写)
  Name string `gorm:"->;<-:create"` // 允许读和写
  Name string `gorm:"->:false;<-:create"` // 仅创建(禁止从 db 读)
  Name string `gorm:"-"`  // 通过 struct 读写会忽略该字段
}
嵌入结构体
type User struct {
  gorm.Model
  Name string
}
// 等效于
type User struct {
  ID        uint           `gorm:"primaryKey"`
  CreatedAt time.Time
  UpdatedAt time.Time
  DeletedAt gorm.DeletedAt `gorm:"index"`
  Name string
}

下面的示例将一个结构嵌入另一个结构,避免了重复的定义

type Author struct {
    Name  string
    Email string
}

type Blog struct {
  ID      int
  Author  Author `gorm:"embedded"`
  Upvotes int32
}
// 等效于
type Blog struct {
  ID    int64
    Name  string
    Email string
  Upvotes  int32
}

还可以为嵌入增加一个前缀

type Blog struct {
  ID      int
  Author  Author `gorm:"embedded;embeddedPrefix:author_"`
  Upvotes int32
}
// 等效于
type Blog struct {
  ID          int64
    AuthorName  string
    AuthorEmail string
  Upvotes     int32
}
字段标签

tag可选不区别大小写,用于字段的相关设置

标签名 说明
column 指定 db 列名
type 列数据类型,推荐使用兼容性好的通用类型,例如:所有数据库都支持 bool、int、uint、float、string、time、
size 指定列大小,例如:size:256
primaryKey 指定列为主键
unique 指定列为唯一
default 指定列的默认值
precision 指定列的精度
scale 指定列大小
not null 指定列为 NOT NULL
autoIncrement 指定列为自动增长
autoIncrementIncrement 自动步长,控制连续记录之间的间隔
embedded 嵌套字段
embeddedPrefix 嵌入字段的列名前缀
autoCreateTime 创建时追踪当前时间,对于 int 字段,它会追踪秒级时间戳,您可以使用 nano/milli 来追踪纳秒、毫秒时间戳,例如:autoCreateTime:nano
autoUpdateTime 创建/更新时追踪当前时间,对于 int 字段,它会追踪秒级时间戳,您可以使用 nano/milli 来追踪纳秒、毫秒时间戳,例如:autoUpdateTime:milli
index 根据参数创建索引,多个字段使用相同的名称则创建复合索引,查看 索引 获取详情
uniqueIndex 与 index 相同,但创建的是唯一索引
check 创建检查约束,例如 check:age > 13,查看 约束 获取详情
<- 设置字段写入的权限, <-:create 只创建、<-:update 只更新、<-:false 无写入权限、<- 创建和更新权限
-> 设置字段读的权限,->:false 无读权限
- 忽略该字段,- 无读写权限
comment 迁移时为字段添加注释

连接到数据库

官方支持的数据库类型有: MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQlite, SQL Server。这是我们常用的几个数据库。

MySQL

import (
  "gorm.io/driver/mysql"
  "gorm.io/gorm"
)

func main() {
  // 参考 https://github.com/go-sql-driver/mysql#dsn-data-source-name 获取详情
  dsn := "user:pass@tcp(127.0.0.1:3306)/dbname?charset=utf8mb4&parseTime=True&loc=Local"
  db, err := gorm.Open(mysql.Open(dsn), &gorm.Config{})
}

PostgreSQL

import (
  "gorm.io/driver/postgres"
  "gorm.io/gorm"
)

dsn := "host=localhost user=gorm password=gorm dbname=gorm port=9920 sslmode=disable TimeZone=Asia/Shanghai"
db, err := gorm.Open(postgres.Open(dsn), &gorm.Config{})

使用了pgx作为驱动。默认情况下,它会启用 prepared statement 缓存,你可以这样禁用它:

// https://github.com/go-gorm/postgres
db, err := gorm.Open(postgres.New(postgres.Config{
  DSN: "user=gorm password=gorm dbname=gorm port=9920 sslmode=disable TimeZone=Asia/Shanghai",
  PreferSimpleProtocol: true, // disables implicit prepared statement usage
}), &gorm.Config{})

SQLite

import (
  "gorm.io/driver/sqlite"
  "gorm.io/gorm"
)

// github.com/mattn/go-sqlite3
db, err := gorm.Open(sqlite.Open("gorm.db"), &gorm.Config{})

SQL Server

import (
  "gorm.io/driver/sqlserver"
  "gorm.io/gorm"
)

// github.com/denisenkom/go-mssqldb
dsn := "sqlserver://gorm:LoremIpsum86@localhost:9930?database=gorm"
db, err := gorm.Open(sqlserver.Open(dsn), &gorm.Config{})

Clickhouse

https://github.com/go-gorm/clickhouse

ClickHouse 是 Yandex(俄罗斯最大的搜索引擎)开源的一个用于实时数据分析的基于列存储的数据库,其处理数据的速度比传统方法快 100-1000 倍。

ClickHouse 的性能超过了目前市场上可比的面向列的 DBMS,每秒钟每台服务器每秒处理数亿至十亿多行和数十千兆字节的数据。

这里有中文学习

import (
  "gorm.io/driver/clickhouse"
  "gorm.io/gorm"
)

func main() {
  dsn := "tcp://localhost:9000?database=gorm&username=gorm&password=gorm&read_timeout=10&write_timeout=20"
  db, err := gorm.Open(clickhouse.Open(dsn), &gorm.Config{})

  // Auto Migrate
  db.AutoMigrate(&User{})
  // Set table options
  db.Set("gorm:table_options", "ENGINE=Distributed(cluster, default, hits)").AutoMigrate(&User{})

  // 插入
  db.Create(&user)

  // 查询
  db.Find(&user, "id = ?", 10)

  // 批量插入
  var users = []User{user1, user2, user3}
  db.Create(&users)
  // ...
}

连接池

使用 database/sql 维护连接池

sqlDB, err := db.DB()

// SetMaxIdleConns 设置空闲连接池中连接的最大数量
sqlDB.SetMaxIdleConns(10)

// SetMaxOpenConns 设置打开数据库连接的最大数量。
sqlDB.SetMaxOpenConns(100)

// SetConnMaxLifetime 设置了连接可复用的最大时间。
sqlDB.SetConnMaxLifetime(time.Hour)

创建

创建记录
user := User{Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 18, Birthday: time.Now()}

result := db.Create(&user) // 通过数据的指针来创建

user.ID             // 返回插入数据的主键
result.Error        // 返回 error
result.RowsAffected // 返回插入记录的条数
用指定的字段创建记录
db.Select("Name", "Age", "CreatedAt").Create(&user)
// INSERT INTO `users` (`name`,`age`,`created_at`) VALUES ("jinzhu", 18, "2020-07-04 11:05:21.775")

创建记录并更新未给出的字段。

db.Omit("Name", "Age", "CreatedAt").Create(&user)
// INSERT INTO `users` (`birthday`,`updated_at`) VALUES ("2020-01-01 00:00:00.000", "2020-07-04 11:05:21.775")
批量插入

GORM 将生成一个单一的 SQL 语句来插入所有数据,并回填主键的值

var users = []User{{Name: "jinzhu1"}, {Name: "jinzhu2"}, {Name: "jinzhu3"}}
db.Create(&users)

for _, user := range users {
  user.ID // 1,2,3
}
创建钩子

GORM 允许用户定义的钩子有 BeforeSave, BeforeCreate, AfterSave, AfterCreate 创建记录时将调用这些钩子方法

func (u *User) BeforeCreate(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
  u.UUID = uuid.New()

    if u.Role == "admin" {
        return errors.New("invalid role")
    }
    return
}
根据 Map 创建

支持根据 map[string]interface{} 和 []map[string]interface{}{} 创建记录

db.Model(&User{}).Create(map[string]interface{}{
  "Name": "jinzhu", "Age": 18,
})

// batch insert from `[]map[string]interface{}{}`
db.Model(&User{}).Create([]map[string]interface{}{
  {"Name": "jinzhu_1", "Age": 18},
  {"Name": "jinzhu_2", "Age": 20},
})

注意: 根据 map 创建记录时,association 不会被调用,且主键也不会自动填充

使用 SQL 表达式、Context Valuer 创建记录
// 通过 map 创建记录
db.Model(User{}).Create(map[string]interface{}{
  "Name": "jinzhu",
  "Location": clause.Expr{SQL: "ST_PointFromText(?)", Vars: []interface{}{"POINT(100 100)"}},
})
// INSERT INTO `users` (`name`,`location`) VALUES ("jinzhu",ST_PointFromText("POINT(100 100)"));

// 通过自定义类型创建记录
type Location struct {
    X, Y int
}

// Scan 方法实现了 sql.Scanner 接口
func (loc *Location) Scan(v interface{}) error {
  // Scan a value into struct from database driver
}

func (loc Location) GormDataType() string {
  return "geometry"
}

func (loc Location) GormValue(ctx context.Context, db *gorm.DB) clause.Expr {
  return clause.Expr{
    SQL:  "ST_PointFromText(?)",
    Vars: []interface{}{fmt.Sprintf("POINT(%d %d)", loc.X, loc.Y)},
  }
}

type User struct {
  Name     string
  Location Location
}

db.Create(&User{
  Name:     "jinzhu",
  Location: Location{X: 100, Y: 100},
})
// INSERT INTO `users` (`name`,`location`) VALUES ("jinzhu",ST_PointFromText("POINT(100 100)"))
高级选项
type CreditCard struct {
  gorm.Model
  Number   string
  UserID   uint
}

type User struct {
  gorm.Model
  Name       string
  CreditCard CreditCard
}

db.Create(&User{
  Name: "jinzhu",
  CreditCard: CreditCard{Number: "411111111111"}
})
// INSERT INTO `users` ...
// INSERT INTO `credit_cards` ...
默认值
type User struct {
  ID   int64
  Name string `gorm:"default:galeone"`
  Age  int64  `gorm:"default:18"`
}
type User struct {
  gorm.Model
  Name string
  Age  *int           `gorm:"default:18"`
  Active sql.NullBool `gorm:"default:true"`
}

查询

// 获取第一条记录(主键升序)
db.First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// 获取一条记录,没有指定排序字段
db.Take(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 1;

// 获取最后一条记录(主键降序)
db.Last(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1;

result := db.First(&user)
result.RowsAffected // 返回找到的记录数
result.Error        // returns error

// 检查 ErrRecordNotFound 错误
errors.Is(result.Error, gorm.ErrRecordNotFound)

如果当前model没有定义主键,将按第一个字段排序

// 根据第一个字段排序
type Language struct {
  Code string
  Name string
}
db.First(&Language{})
// SELECT * FROM `languages` ORDER BY `languages`.`code` LIMIT 1
用主键检索
db.First(&user, 10)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10;

db.First(&user, "10")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 10;

db.Find(&users, []int{1,2,3})
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id IN (1,2,3);

db.First(&user, "id = ?", "1b74413f-f3b8-409f-ac47-e8c062e3472a")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = "1b74413f-f3b8-409f-ac47-e8c062e3472a";
检索全部对象
// 获取全部记录
result := db.Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users;

result.RowsAffected // 返回找到的记录数,相当于 `len(users)`
result.Error        // returns error
条件
// 获取第一条匹配的记录
db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// 获取全部匹配的记录
db.Where("name <> ?", "jinzhu").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> 'jinzhu';

// IN
db.Where("name IN ?", []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name IN ('jinzhu','jinzhu 2');

// LIKE
db.Where("name LIKE ?", "%jin%").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name LIKE '%jin%';

// AND
db.Where("name = ? AND age >= ?", "jinzhu", "22").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' AND age >= 22;

// Time
db.Where("updated_at > ?", lastWeek).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE updated_at > '2000-01-01 00:00:00';

// BETWEEN
db.Where("created_at BETWEEN ? AND ?", lastWeek, today).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE created_at BETWEEN '2000-01-01 00:00:00' AND '2000-01-08 00:00:00';

// Struct
db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 20}).First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20 ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Map
db.Where(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu", "age": 20}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 20;

// 主键切片条件
db.Where([]int64{20, 21, 22}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id IN (20, 21, 22);

// GORM 只会查询非零值字段
db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 0}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

// 使用 map 来构建查询条件,它会使用所有的值
db.Where(map[string]interface{}{"Name": "jinzhu", "Age": 0}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 0;

// 使用结构体进行查询时,你可以使用它的字段名或其 dbname 列名作为参数来指定查询的字段
db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu"}, "name", "Age").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu" AND age = 0;

// !
db.Where(&User{Name: "jinzhu"}, "Age").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 0;
内联条件
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 23;
// 根据主键获取记录,如果是非整型主键
db.First(&user, "id = ?", "string_primary_key")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id = 'string_primary_key';

// Plain SQL
db.Find(&user, "name = ?", "jinzhu")
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = "jinzhu";

db.Find(&users, "name <> ? AND age > ?", "jinzhu", 20)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" AND age > 20;

// Struct
db.Find(&users, User{Age: 20})
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;

// Map
db.Find(&users, map[string]interface{}{"age": 20})
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;
Not 条件
db.Not("name = ?", "jinzhu").First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE NOT name = "jinzhu" ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// Not In
db.Not(map[string]interface{}{"name": []string{"jinzhu", "jinzhu 2"}}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name NOT IN ("jinzhu", "jinzhu 2");

// Struct
db.Not(User{Name: "jinzhu", Age: 18}).First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name <> "jinzhu" AND age <> 18 ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;

// 不在主键切片中的记录
db.Not([]int64{1,2,3}).First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE id NOT IN (1,2,3) ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
Or 条件
db.Where("role = ?", "admin").Or("role = ?", "super_admin").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE role = 'admin' OR role = 'super_admin';

// Struct
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(User{Name: "jinzhu 2", Age: 18}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR (name = 'jinzhu 2' AND age = 18);

// Map
db.Where("name = 'jinzhu'").Or(map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu 2", "age": 18}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR (name = 'jinzhu 2' AND age = 18);
选择特定字段
db.Select("name", "age").Find(&users)
// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Select([]string{"name", "age"}).Find(&users)
// SELECT name, age FROM users;

db.Table("users").Select("COALESCE(age,?)", 42).Rows()
// SELECT COALESCE(age,'42') FROM users;
Order
db.Order("age desc, name").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

// 多个 order
db.Order("age desc").Order("name").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY age desc, name;

db.Clauses(clause.OrderBy{
  Expression: clause.Expr{SQL: "FIELD(id,?)", Vars: []interface{}{[]int{1, 2, 3}}, WithoutParentheses: true},
}).Find(&User{})
// SELECT * FROM users ORDER BY FIELD(id,1,2,3)
Limit & Offset
db.Limit(3).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 3;

// 通过 -1 消除 Limit 条件
db.Limit(10).Find(&users1).Limit(-1).Find(&users2)
// SELECT * FROM users LIMIT 10; (users1)
// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)

db.Offset(3).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 3;

db.Limit(10).Offset(5).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 5 LIMIT 10;

// 通过 -1 消除 Offset 条件
db.Offset(10).Find(&users1).Offset(-1).Find(&users2)
// SELECT * FROM users OFFSET 10; (users1)
// SELECT * FROM users; (users2)
Group & Having
type result struct {
  Date  time.Time
  Total int
}

db.Model(&User{}).Select("name, sum(age) as total").Where("name LIKE ?", "group%").Group("name").First(&result)
// SELECT name, sum(age) as total FROM `users` WHERE name LIKE "group%" GROUP BY `name`


db.Model(&User{}).Select("name, sum(age) as total").Group("name").Having("name = ?", "group").Find(&result)
// SELECT name, sum(age) as total FROM `users` GROUP BY `name` HAVING name = "group"

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
  ...
}

rows, err := db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Rows()
for rows.Next() {
  ...
}

type Result struct {
  Date  time.Time
  Total int64
}
db.Table("orders").Select("date(created_at) as date, sum(amount) as total").Group("date(created_at)").Having("sum(amount) > ?", 100).Scan(&results)
Distinct

从模型中选择不相同的值

db.Distinct("name", "age").Order("name, age desc").Find(&results)
Joins
type result struct {
  Name  string
  Email string
}
db.Model(&User{}).Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Scan(&result{})
// SELECT users.name, emails.email FROM `users` left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id

rows, err := db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Rows()
for rows.Next() {
  ...
}

db.Table("users").Select("users.name, emails.email").Joins("left join emails on emails.user_id = users.id").Scan(&results)

// 带参数的多表连接
db.Joins("JOIN emails ON emails.user_id = users.id AND emails.email = ?", "jinzhu@example.org").Joins("JOIN credit_cards ON credit_cards.user_id = users.id").Where("credit_cards.number = ?", "411111111111").Find(&user)
Scan

Scan 结果至 struct,用法与 Find 类似

type Result struct {
  Name string
  Age  int
}

var result Result
db.Table("users").Select("name", "age").Where("name = ?", "Antonio").Scan(&result)

// 原生 SQL
db.Raw("SELECT name, age FROM users WHERE name = ?", "Antonio").Scan(&result)

高级查询

type User struct {
  ID     uint
  Name   string
  Age    int
  Gender string
  // 假设后面还有几百个字段...
}

type APIUser struct {
  ID   uint
  Name string
}

// 查询时会自动选择 `id`, `name` 字段
db.Model(&User{}).Limit(10).Find(&APIUser{})
// SELECT `id`, `name` FROM `users` LIMIT 10
Locking

支持多种类型的锁

db.Clauses(clause.Locking{Strength: "UPDATE"}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM `users` FOR UPDATE

db.Clauses(clause.Locking{
  Strength: "SHARE",
  Table: clause.Table{Name: clause.CurrentTable},
}).Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM `users` FOR SHARE OF `users`
子查询
db.Where("amount > (?)", db.Table("orders").Select("AVG(amount)")).Find(&orders)
// SELECT * FROM "orders" WHERE amount > (SELECT AVG(amount) FROM "orders");

subQuery := db.Select("AVG(age)").Where("name LIKE ?", "name%").Table("users")
db.Select("AVG(age) as avgage").Group("name").Having("AVG(age) > (?)", subQuery).Find(&results)
// SELECT AVG(age) as avgage FROM `users` GROUP BY `name` HAVING AVG(age) > (SELECT AVG(age) FROM `users` WHERE name LIKE "name%")
From 子查询
db.Table("(?) as u", db.Model(&User{}).Select("name", "age")).Where("age = ?", 18}).Find(&User{})
// SELECT * FROM (SELECT `name`,`age` FROM `users`) as u WHERE `age` = 18

subQuery1 := db.Model(&User{}).Select("name")
subQuery2 := db.Model(&Pet{}).Select("name")
db.Table("(?) as u, (?) as p", subQuery1, subQuery2).Find(&User{})
// SELECT * FROM (SELECT `name` FROM `users`) as u, (SELECT `name` FROM `pets`) as p
Group 条件
db.Where(
    db.Where("pizza = ?", "pepperoni").Where(db.Where("size = ?", "small").Or("size = ?", "medium")),
).Or(
    db.Where("pizza = ?", "hawaiian").Where("size = ?", "xlarge"),
).Find(&Pizza{}).Statement

// SELECT * FROM `pizzas` WHERE (pizza = "pepperoni" AND (size = "small" OR size = "medium")) OR (pizza = "hawaiian" AND size = "xlarge")
命名参数
db.Where("name1 = @name OR name2 = @name", sql.Named("name", "jinzhu")).Find(&user)
// SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE name1 = "jinzhu" OR name2 = "jinzhu"

db.Where("name1 = @name OR name2 = @name", map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu"}).First(&user)
// SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE name1 = "jinzhu" OR name2 = "jinzhu" ORDER BY `users`.`id` LIMIT 1
Find 至 map
var result map[string]interface{}
db.Model(&User{}).First(&result, "id = ?", 1)

var results []map[string]interface{}
db.Table("users").Find(&results)
FirstOrInit

获取第一条匹配的记录,或者根据给定的条件初始化一个实例

// 未找到 user,根据给定的条件初始化 struct
db.FirstOrInit(&user, User{Name: "non_existing"})
// user -> User{Name: "non_existing"}

// 找到了 `name` = `jinzhu` 的 user
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).FirstOrInit(&user)
// user -> User{ID: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 18}

// 找到了 `name` = `jinzhu` 的 user
db.FirstOrInit(&user, map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu"})
// user -> User{ID: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 18}

// 未找到 user,则根据给定的条件以及 Attrs 初始化 user
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = 'non_existing' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 未找到 user,则根据给定的条件以及 Attrs 初始化 user
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs("age", 20).FirstOrInit(&user)
// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = 'non_existing' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到了 `name` = `jinzhu` 的 user,则忽略 Attrs
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = jinzhu' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// user -> User{ID: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 18}

// 未找到 user,根据条件和 Assign 属性初始化 struct
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
// user -> User{Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到 `name` = `jinzhu` 的记录,依然会更新 Assign 相关的属性
db.Where(User{Name: "Jinzhu"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrInit(&user)
// SELECT * FROM USERS WHERE name = jinzhu' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// user -> User{ID: 111, Name: "Jinzhu", Age: 20}
FirstOrCreate

获取第一条匹配的记录,或者根据给定的条件创建一条新纪录

// 未找到 user,则根据给定条件创建一条新纪录
db.FirstOrCreate(&user, User{Name: "non_existing"})
// INSERT INTO "users" (name) VALUES ("non_existing");
// user -> User{ID: 112, Name: "non_existing"}

// 找到了 `name` = `jinzhu` 的 user
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
// user -> User{ID: 111, Name: "jinzhu", "Age": 18}

// 未找到 user,根据条件和 Assign 属性创建记录
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'non_existing' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// INSERT INTO "users" (name, age) VALUES ("non_existing", 20);
// user -> User{ID: 112, Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到了 `name` = `jinzhu` 的 user,则忽略 Attrs
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).Attrs(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// user -> User{ID: 111, Name: "jinzhu", Age: 18}

// 未找到 user,根据条件和 Assign 属性创建记录
db.Where(User{Name: "non_existing"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'non_existing' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// INSERT INTO "users" (name, age) VALUES ("non_existing", 20);
// user -> User{ID: 112, Name: "non_existing", Age: 20}

// 找到了 `name` = `jinzhu` 的 user,依然会根据 Assign 更新记录
db.Where(User{Name: "jinzhu"}).Assign(User{Age: 20}).FirstOrCreate(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' ORDER BY id LIMIT 1;
// UPDATE users SET age=20 WHERE id = 111;
// user -> User{ID: 111, Name: "jinzhu", Age: 20}
迭代
rows, err := db.Model(&User{}).Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Rows()
defer rows.Close()

for rows.Next() {
  var user User
  // ScanRows 方法用于将一行记录扫描至结构体
  db.ScanRows(rows, &user)

  // 业务逻辑...
}
FindInBatches
// 每次批量处理 100 条
result := db.Where("processed = ?", false).FindInBatches(&results, 100, func(tx *gorm.DB, batch int) error {
  for _, result := range results {
    // 批量处理找到的记录
  }

  tx.Save(&results)

  tx.RowsAffected // 本次批量操作影响的记录数

  batch // Batch 1, 2, 3

  // 如果返回错误会终止后续批量操作
  return nil
})

result.Error // returned error
result.RowsAffected // 整个批量操作影响的记录数
查询钩子

AfterFind 钩子,查询记录后会调用它

func (u *User) AfterFind(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
  if u.Role == "" {
    u.Role = "user"
  }
  return
}
Scopes

指定常用的查询,可以在调用方法时引用这些查询

func AmountGreaterThan1000(db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
  return db.Where("amount > ?", 1000)
}

func PaidWithCreditCard(db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
  return db.Where("pay_mode_sign = ?", "C")
}

func PaidWithCod(db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
  return db.Where("pay_mode_sign = ?", "C")
}

func OrderStatus(status []string) func (db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
  return func (db *gorm.DB) *gorm.DB {
    return db.Where("status IN (?)", status)
  }
}

db.Scopes(AmountGreaterThan1000, PaidWithCreditCard).Find(&orders)
// 查找所有金额大于 1000 的信用卡订单

db.Scopes(AmountGreaterThan1000, PaidWithCod).Find(&orders)
// 查找所有金额大于 1000 的 COD 订单

db.Scopes(AmountGreaterThan1000, OrderStatus([]string{"paid", "shipped"})).Find(&orders)
// 查找所有金额大于1000 的已付款或已发货订单
Count

获取匹配的记录数

var count int64
db.Model(&User{}).Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Or("name = ?", "jinzhu 2").Count(&count)
// SELECT count(1) FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu' OR name = 'jinzhu 2'

db.Model(&User{}).Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Count(&count)
// SELECT count(1) FROM users WHERE name = 'jinzhu'; (count)

db.Table("deleted_users").Count(&count)
// SELECT count(1) FROM deleted_users;

// Count with Distinct
db.Model(&User{}).Distinct("name").Count(&count)
// SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT(`name`)) FROM `users`

db.Table("deleted_users").Select("count(distinct(name))").Count(&count)
// SELECT count(distinct(name)) FROM deleted_users

// Count with Group
users := []User{
  {Name: "name1"},
  {Name: "name2"},
  {Name: "name3"},
  {Name: "name3"},
}

db.Model(&User{}).Group("name").Count(&count)
count // => 3

更新

db.First(&user)

user.Name = "jinzhu 2"
user.Age = 100
db.Save(&user)
// UPDATE users SET name='jinzhu 2', age=100, birthday='2016-01-01', updated_at = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;
更新单个列
// 条件更新
db.Model(&User{}).Where("active = ?", true).Update("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE active=true;

// User 的 ID 是 `111`
db.Model(&user).Update("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;

// 根据条件和 model 的值进行更新
db.Model(&user).Where("active = ?", true).Update("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111 AND active=true;
更新多列
// 根据 `struct` 更新属性,只会更新非零值的字段
db.Model(&user).Updates(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18, Active: false})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18, updated_at = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id = 111;

// 根据 `map` 更新属性
db.Model(&user).Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18, "active": false})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18, active=false, updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;
更新选定字段
// 使用 Map 进行 Select
// User's ID is `111`:
db.Model(&user).Select("name").Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18, "active": false})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello' WHERE id=111;

db.Model(&user).Omit("name").Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18, "active": false})
// UPDATE users SET age=18, active=false, updated_at='2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE id=111;

// 使用 Struct 进行 Select(会 select 零值的字段)
db.Model(&user).Select("Name", "Age").Updates(User{Name: "new_name", Age: 0})
// UPDATE users SET name='new_name', age=0 WHERE id=111;

// Select 所有字段(查询包括零值字段的所有字段)
db.Model(&user).Select("*").Update(User{Name: "jinzhu", Role: "admin", Age: 0})

// Select 除 Role 外的所有字段(包括零值字段的所有字段)
db.Model(&user).Select("*").Omit("Role").Update(User{Name: "jinzhu", Role: "admin", Age: 0})
Hook
func (u *User) BeforeUpdate(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
    if u.Role == "admin" {
        return errors.New("admin user not allowed to update")
    }
    return
}
批量更新
// 根据 struct 更新
db.Model(User{}).Where("role = ?", "admin").Updates(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE role = 'admin';

// 根据 map 更新
db.Table("users").Where("id IN ?", []int{10, 11}).Updates(map[string]interface{}{"name": "hello", "age": 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE id IN (10, 11);
阻止全局更新

在没有任何条件的情况下执行批量更新,默认情况下,GORM 不会执行该操作,并返回 ErrMissingWhereClause 错误

你可以使用原生SQL或者启用 AllowGlobalUpdate 模式

db.Model(&User{}).Update("name", "jinzhu").Error // gorm.ErrMissingWhereClause

db.Model(&User{}).Where("1 = 1").Update("name", "jinzhu")
// UPDATE users SET `name` = "jinzhu" WHERE 1=1

db.Exec("UPDATE users SET name = ?", "jinzhu")
// UPDATE users SET name = "jinzhu"

db.Session(&gorm.Session{AllowGlobalUpdate: true}).Model(&User{}).Update("name", "jinzhu")
// UPDATE users SET `name` = "jinzhu"
更新的记录数

获取受更新影响的行数

// 通过 `RowsAffected` 得到更新的记录数
result := db.Model(User{}).Where("role = ?", "admin").Updates(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE role = 'admin;

result.RowsAffected // 更新的记录数
result.Error        // 更新的错误
使用 SQL 表达式更新
// product 的 ID 是 `3`
db.Model(&product).Update("price", gorm.Expr("price * ? + ?", 2, 100))
// UPDATE "products" SET "price" = price * 2 + 100, "updated_at" = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE "id" = 3;

db.Model(&product).Updates(map[string]interface{}{"price": gorm.Expr("price * ? + ?", 2, 100)})
// UPDATE "products" SET "price" = price * 2 + 100, "updated_at" = '2013-11-17 21:34:10' WHERE "id" = 3;

db.Model(&product).UpdateColumn("quantity", gorm.Expr("quantity - ?", 1))
// UPDATE "products" SET "quantity" = quantity - 1 WHERE "id" = 3;

db.Model(&product).Where("quantity > 1").UpdateColumn("quantity", gorm.Expr("quantity - ?", 1))
// UPDATE "products" SET "quantity" = quantity - 1 WHERE "id" = 3 AND quantity > 1;


// 根据自定义数据类型创建
type Location struct {
    X, Y int
}

func (loc Location) GormValue(ctx context.Context, db *gorm.DB) clause.Expr {
  return clause.Expr{
    SQL:  "ST_PointFromText(?)",
    Vars: []interface{}{fmt.Sprintf("POINT(%d %d)", loc.X, loc.Y)},
  }
}

db.Model(&User{ID: 1}).Updates(User{
  Name:  "jinzhu",
  Location: Location{X: 100, Y: 100},
})
// UPDATE `user_with_points` SET `name`="jinzhu",`location`=ST_PointFromText("POINT(100 100)") WHERE `id` = 1
根据子查询进行更新
db.Model(&user).Update("company_name", db.Model(&Company{}).Select("name").Where("companies.id = users.company_id"))
// UPDATE "users" SET "company_name" = (SELECT name FROM companies WHERE companies.id = users.company_id);

db.Table("users as u").Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Update("company_name", db.Table("companies as c").Select("name").Where("c.id = u.company_id"))

db.Table("users as u").Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Updates(map[string]interface{}{}{"company_name": db.Table("companies as c").Select("name").Where("c.id = u.company_id")})
不使用 Hook 和时间追踪

可以使用 UpdateColumn、UpdateColumns,其用法类似于 Update、Updates

// 更新单个列
db.Model(&user).UpdateColumn("name", "hello")
// UPDATE users SET name='hello' WHERE id = 111;

// 更新多个列
db.Model(&user).UpdateColumns(User{Name: "hello", Age: 18})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=18 WHERE id = 111;

// 更新选中的列
db.Model(&user).Select("name", "age").UpdateColumns(User{Name: "hello", Age: 0})
// UPDATE users SET name='hello', age=0 WHERE id = 111;
检查字段是否有变更
func (u *User) BeforeUpdate(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
  // 如果 Role 字段有变更
    if tx.Statement.Changed("Role") {
    return errors.New("role not allowed to change")
    }

  if tx.Statement.Changed("Name", "Admin") { // 如果 Name 或 Role 字段有变更
    tx.Statement.SetColumn("Age", 18)
  }

  // 如果任意字段有变更
    if tx.Statement.Changed() {
        tx.Statement.SetColumn("RefreshedAt", time.Now())
    }
    return nil
}

db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(map[string]interface{"name": "jinzhu2"})
// Changed("Name") => true
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(map[string]interface{"name": "jinzhu"})
// Changed("Name") => false, 因为 `Name` 没有变更
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Select("Admin").Updates(map[string]interface{
  "name": "jinzhu2", "admin": false,
})
// Changed("Name") => false, 因为 `Name` 没有被 Select 选中并更新

db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(User{Name: "jinzhu2"})
// Changed("Name") => true
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Updates(User{Name: "jinzhu"})
// Changed("Name") => false, 因为 `Name` 没有变更
db.Model(&User{ID: 1, Name: "jinzhu"}).Select("Admin").Updates(User{Name: "jinzhu2"})
// Changed("Name") => false, 因为 `Name` 没有被 Select 选中并更新
在更新时修改值
func (user *User) BeforeSave(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
  if pw, err := bcrypt.GenerateFromPassword(user.Password, 0); err == nil {
    tx.Statement.SetColumn("EncryptedPassword", pw)
  }

  if tx.Statement.Changed("Code") {
    s.Age += 20
    tx.Statement.SetColumn("Age", s.Age+20)
  }
}

db.Model(&user).Update("Name", "jinzhu")

删除

删除对象需要指定主键,否则会触发 批量 Delete

// Email 的 ID 是 `10`
db.Delete(&email)
// DELETE from emails where id = 10;

// 带额外条件的删除
db.Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Delete(&email)
// DELETE from emails where id = 10 AND name = "jinzhu";
根据主键删除
db.Delete(&User{}, 10)
// DELETE FROM users WHERE id = 10;

db.Delete(&User{}, "10")
// DELETE FROM users WHERE id = 10;

db.Delete(&users, []int{1,2,3})
// DELETE FROM users WHERE id IN (1,2,3);
Delete Hook
func (u *User) BeforeDelete(tx *gorm.DB) (err error) {
    if u.Role == "admin" {
        return errors.New("admin user not allowed to delete")
    }
    return
}
批量删除
db.Where("email LIKE ?", "%jinzhu%").Delete(Email{})
// DELETE from emails where email LIKE "%jinzhu%";

db.Delete(Email{}, "email LIKE ?", "%jinzhu%")
// DELETE from emails where email LIKE "%jinzhu%";
阻止全局删除

在没有任何条件的情况下执行批量删除,GORM 不会执行该操作,并返回 ErrMissingWhereClause 错误

对此必须加一些条件,或者使用原生 SQL,或者启用 AllowGlobalUpdate 模式

db.Delete(&User{}).Error // gorm.ErrMissingWhereClause

db.Where("1 = 1").Delete(&User{})
// DELETE FROM `users` WHERE 1=1

db.Exec("DELETE FROM users")
// DELETE FROM users

db.Session(&gorm.Session{AllowGlobalUpdate: true}).Delete(&User{})
// DELETE FROM users
软删除

如果您的模型包含了一个 gorm.DeletedAt 字段(gorm.Model 已经包含了该字段),它将自动获得软删除的能力!

拥有软删除能力的模型调用 Delete 时,记录不会被从数据库中真正删除。但 GORM 会将 DeletedAt 置为当前时间, 并且你不能再通过正常的查询方法找到该记录。

// user 的 ID 是 `111`
db.Delete(&user)
// UPDATE users SET deleted_at="2013-10-29 10:23" WHERE id = 111;

// 批量删除
db.Where("age = ?", 20).Delete(&User{})
// UPDATE users SET deleted_at="2013-10-29 10:23" WHERE age = 20;

// 在查询时会忽略被软删除的记录
db.Where("age = 20").Find(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20 AND deleted_at IS NULL;

如果您不想引入 gorm.Model,您也可以这样启用软删除特性:

type User struct {
  ID      int
  Deleted gorm.DeletedAt
  Name    string
}
查找被软删除的记录
db.Unscoped().Where("age = 20").Find(&users)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE age = 20;
永久删除
db.Unscoped().Delete(&order)
// DELETE FROM orders WHERE id=10;

SQL 构建器

原生 SQL
type Result struct {
  ID   int
  Name string
  Age  int
}

var result Result
db.Raw("SELECT id, name, age FROM users WHERE id = ?", 3).Scan(&result)

var age int
db.Raw("select sum(age) from users where role = ?", "admin").Scan(&age)
db.Exec("DROP TABLE users")
db.Exec("UPDATE orders SET shipped_at=? WHERE id IN ?", time.Now(), []int64{1,2,3})

// Exec SQL 表达式
db.Exec("update users set money=? where name = ?", gorm.Expr("money * ? + ?", 10000, 1), "jinzhu")
命名参数
db.Where("name1 = @name OR name2 = @name", sql.Named("name", "jinzhu")).Find(&user)
// SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE name1 = "jinzhu" OR name2 = "jinzhu"

db.Where("name1 = @name OR name2 = @name", map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu2"}).First(&result3)
// SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE name1 = "jinzhu2" OR name2 = "jinzhu2" ORDER BY `users`.`id` LIMIT 1

// 原生 SQL 及命名参数
db.Raw("SELECT * FROM users WHERE name1 = @name OR name2 = @name2 OR name3 = @name",
   sql.Named("name", "jinzhu1"), sql.Named("name2", "jinzhu2")).Find(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE name1 = "jinzhu1" OR name2 = "jinzhu2" OR name3 = "jinzhu1"

db.Exec("UPDATE users SET name1 = @name, name2 = @name2, name3 = @name",
   sql.Named("name", "jinzhunew"), sql.Named("name2", "jinzhunew2"))
// UPDATE users SET name1 = "jinzhunew", name2 = "jinzhunew2", name3 = "jinzhunew"

db.Raw("SELECT * FROM users WHERE (name1 = @name AND name3 = @name) AND name2 = @name2",
   map[string]interface{}{"name": "jinzhu", "name2": "jinzhu2"}).Find(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE (name1 = "jinzhu" AND name3 = "jinzhu") AND name2 = "jinzhu2"

type NamedArgument struct {
    Name string
    Name2 string
}

db.Raw("SELECT * FROM users WHERE (name1 = @Name AND name3 = @Name) AND name2 = @Name2",
     NamedArgument{Name: "jinzhu", Name2: "jinzhu2"}).Find(&user)
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE (name1 = "jinzhu" AND name3 = "jinzhu") AND name2 = "jinzhu2"
DryRun 模式

在不执行的情况下生成 SQL ,可以用于准备或测试生成的 SQL

stmt := db.Session(&Session{DryRun: true}).First(&user, 1).Statement
stmt.SQL.String() //=> SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `id` = $1 ORDER BY `id`
stmt.Vars         //=> []interface{}{1}
Row & Rows
// 使用 GORM API 构建 SQL
row := db.Table("users").Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Select("name", "age").Row()
row.Scan(&name, &age)

// 使用原生 SQL
row := db.Raw("select name, age, email from users where name = ?", "jinzhu").Row()
row.Scan(&name, &age, &email)


// 使用 GORM API 构建 SQL
rows, err := db.Model(&User{}).Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Select("name, age, email").Rows()
defer rows.Close()
for rows.Next() {
  rows.Scan(&name, &age, &email)

  // 业务逻辑...
}

// 原生 SQL
rows, err := db.Raw("select name, age, email from users where name = ?", "jinzhu").Rows()
defer rows.Close()
for rows.Next() {
  rows.Scan(&name, &age, &email)

  // 业务逻辑...
}
将 sql.Rows 扫描至 model

使用 ScanRows 将一行记录扫描至 struct

rows, err := db.Model(&User{}).Where("name = ?", "jinzhu").Select("name, age, email").Rows() // (*sql.Rows, error)
defer rows.Close()

var user User
for rows.Next() {
  // ScanRows 将一行扫描至 user
  db.ScanRows(rows, &user)

  // 业务逻辑...
}

关联

Belongs To

即关联表

// `User` 属于 `Company`,`CompanyID` 是外键
type User struct {
  gorm.Model
  Name      string
  CompanyID int
  Company   Company
}

type Company struct {
  ID   int
  Name string
}

要定义一个 belongs to 关系,必须存在外键,默认的外键使用拥有者的类型名加上主字段名

对于上面例子,定义属于 Company 的 User,其外键一般是 CompanyID

Has One

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